It was believed that the real wealth is precious metals as such.

At the same time, using its favorable geographical location to engage in legal trade with the colonies of Spain and Portugal, the development of smuggling as a craft, and the promotion of corsairs and piracy, England thus took an active part in the redistribution of colonial wealth. The English economist John Keynes expressed the original opinion that the gold and silver of Peru actually contributed to the creation of the British Empire. He wrote that the treasures brought to England by the pirate Francis Drake, which were the greatest booty of piracy of all time, marked the beginning of the country’s foreign investment.

Queen Elizabeth of England took advantage of her admiral’s temperament and paid off her foreign debt in full, and invested a considerable part of her capital, £ 42,000, in the Levant. Part of the company’s profits went to the creation of the famous West Indian company.

The precious metals and other jewels seized from America and India came to Europe just when there was a great need for them. They quickly dispersed to European countries, becoming a powerful impetus for the development of capitalism, the initial accumulation of capital created the conditions for the industrial revolution, laying the foundations of the colonial system, the emergence of the world market. It had global historical significance.

Treasures overtook Europe suddenly. The first reaction in Spain, for example, was the emergence of contempt for land and work in general. It was believed that the real wealth is precious metals as such. The cost of living has increased significantly across Europe, the price system has changed significantly, the real boom has been experienced by the financial and banking business, the market, trade, and speculation have developed.

Cities grew rapidly. The former rich were surpassed by the new ones, first of all by merchants and bankers. The bourgeoisie became a privileged class of society, financing monarchs who spent gold mainly on maintaining the army. One after another, bourgeois revolutions took place in Europe.

The diet of Europeans has significantly improved and enriched. The most important were potatoes imported from Peru in 1533. At the beginning of the XVIII century. this root became widespread in Europe, becoming the second bread. No less popular was corn, which significantly influenced the development of animal husbandry. Europeans learned about tomatoes, beans, a large number of fruits. Learned about tobacco.

Undoubtedly, European material and spiritual culture was enriched by the achievements of the peoples of Asia. The East became Europe’s first supplier of exotics, and Eastern thinkers became a model of wisdom and perfection for educated Europeans. But the reality of America, with its distinctive Indian civilizations that suddenly emerged from the mists of the ages, simply stunned the humanists of Europe. Of particular importance was the controversy over the human nature of the Indians. It did not stop after the bull of Pope Paul III in 1537, which recognized the Indians "real people"… Many European humanists defended the Indian population and the populations of Africa and Asia. There was a struggle for human rights and racial equality.

The captured lands were quickly colonized and Christianized. The Catholic Church planted its institutions, including the Inquisition, and Africa and America were particularly hard hit. In America, up to 90% of the indigenous population was exterminated. Africa has become a source of black slaves. The colonial powers discovered factories on the coast of Africa that were engaged in catching people. Entire African peoples disappeared from the face of the earth, destroyed by the slave trade. The history of mankind has never known such mass abduction and enslavement of people.

It existed and operated for almost three centuries "devil’s triangle" the routes of which were slave trade. Extracted "black gold" in different ways. They attacked Negro settlements, captured strong men and women, and destroyed everyone else; provoked intertribal wars by buying prisoners; arranged "hunting" devastating vast areas of the continent. Up to 70% of slaves died during transportation, and still the profit was up to 1000% on the invested capital. The Atlantic Ocean has a real mass grave for millions of Africans.

The slave trade gave a strong impetus to the development of capitalism. On the blood and bones of millions of slaves, Negroes and Indians, lay the well-being of the European nobility. The most active in this regard was England. In 1774 alone, 300 ships left Liverpool for slaves.

The remnants of the colonial system have not yet been dismantled.


Bakless J., America through the eyes of pioneers – Moscow: – "Politizdat" – 1969 – 328p. Garcilaso de La Vega, History of the Inca State – Moscow: – "AST" – 2005 – 408p.Kunin KI, Magellan – Moscow: – "Politizdat" – 1958 – 402s. Lielais A., Conquistadors – Kyiv: – "Ukraine" – 1996 – 367p. Magidovich IP, Essays on the history of geographical discoveries – Moscow: – "Evening" – 2000 – 389s. Morrison SE, Christopher Columbus, sailor – Moscow: – "Politizdat" – 1958 – 412p. Pashchuk VV, Abduction of the continent – Kyiv: – "Ukraine" – 1991 – 320p.


Geography of Ukraine: rivers of Ivano-Frankivsk region. Abstract

The largest rivers of Prykarpattia are the Dniester and the Prut. Almost two thirds of the region’s territory is irrigated by the waters of the Dniester basin, and only the south-eastern outskirts belong to the Prut basin.

The length of the Dniester within Prykarpattia is 190 km. A very developed network of its right tributaries: Svicha, Limnytsia, Bystrytsia, which are formed in the generously irrigated by the Carpathians. The second river basin belongs to the Prut – the left tributary of the Danube. The sources of the river are on the northern slopes of the Montenegrin ridge. The length of the Prut within the region is about 150 km. The largest tributaries: Cheremosh, Rybnitsa, Pistinka.

There are many lakes and ponds in the plains of the region. The largest lake is Shibene (length 850 m, width 200 m). With closed locks, the depth is 25 m, and the water supply is 400 thousand cubic meters. meters. The water of the lake is used for rafting in Cheremosh. The second largest is Lake Nesamovite at the foot of Mount Turkul (length 150 m, width 44 – 80 m). Fish are bred in ponds – carp, grass carp, trout.

Carpathian rivers

Something, and there is no shortage of rivers in the Carpathians. For comparison, interesting figures are given. There are about 73,000 rivers in Ukraine, including 29,700 in the mountains of Ukraine and about 28,000 in the Ukrainian Carpathians.

However, there are only about 450 rivers with a length of more than 10 km. Accordingly, the main part of the Carpathian rivers belongs to the category of small. Their total length is 36 thousand km. The density of the hydraulic network is the highest in Ukraine: the average is from 0.5 to 0.7 km / km2, and the maximum is -1.0-1.2 km / km2 and more.

Rivers are not navigable, they used to float on the forest. In some places, the element was exploited as a free source of energy, but in general, due to the low level of technological support of the region, people gave peace to rivers and streams.

The Ukrainian Carpathians are a watershed of large river systems and at the same time a watershed of their tributaries. To the northwest of the outer side of the mountain arc lie the sources of the San (Baltic basin), to the east begin the rivers of the Black Sea basin – the sources and tributaries of the Dniester, which drain the northeastern slope of the Carpathians and Prykarpattia, and in the southeast. From the inner side of the Carpathian arc begins the Tisza and its numerous tributaries, which divide the southwestern slopes of the Carpathians and the Transcarpathian lowlands.

In the location of rivers and the nature of the dismemberment of the surface, there are certain patterns due to the complex development of mountains, modern morphotectonic and lithological structure of the territory. According to the position relative to geological structures and topography of the area, all rivers can be divided into longitudinal, flowing along the structures, transverse, which intersect them at right angles, and diagonal, which obliquely intersect the main structures.

The largest flooded rivers – the Dniester in Prykarpattia and the Tisza in Zakarpattia – are longitudinal. They are laid in the zones of marginal depressions, which collect all surface and groundwater flowing down from the mountains. Smaller rivers – the right tributaries of the Dniester and the left Tisza – are transverse or diagonal. In the Carpathians, on the other hand, large rivers are transverse or diagonal, and their tributaries are longitudinal. Large transverse rivers flowed mainly along the lines of tectonic faults (faults, gaps) such as the upper reaches of the Dniester, Stryi, Prut, Tisza, Siret, Uzh, Latorytsia, Teresva, White and Black Cheremosh.

Longitudinal rivers are small. They laid their channels, usually in rocks that are easily eroded. Such rivers include: the upper reaches of the Stryi, Zavadka, Ripynka, Zdenyatska, the middle reaches of the Putyla, and so on.

Transverse and longitudinal directions of the Carpathian rivers create a peculiar pattern of horizontal dismemberment – lattice, or rectangular. Many mountain rivers often change direction. North – eastern and south – western directions in places of river breakthrough of anticlinal mountain ranges abruptly, almost at right angles, change at the exit of rivers in intermountain depressions and zones of foothill depressions. Therefore, riverbeds often have polypoid curves (Stryi, Cheremosh, etc.).

The sources of rivers begin in the depths of the mountains, at high altitudes of the zigzag watershed. The modern watershed of the Ukrainian Carpathians does not coincide with the axial, most elevated zone of the Polonyn ridge. It is shifted to the northeast in the Central syncline zone.

The rivers of the Carpathians have a mountainous character. Their valleys are usually narrow and deep, the slopes are sometimes steep. Such features are acquired by the valleys of transverse rivers in the upper reaches and when they cross ridges. The riverbeds have a big drop.

The slope of the channels of large transverse rivers is smaller than small ones. Thus, the Black Tisza has a slope of 19 m / km, and its tributary Hoverla – 75 m / km; Teresva – 30 m / km, White Cheremosh – 14 m / km, Black Cheremosh – 9.7 m / km. The longitudinal profile of such rivers is not developed.

The width of the channels is small, even in such large rivers as the Prut and Cheremosh, it does not exceed 100 m. The channels are often clogged with stones and rock fragments. There are rapids and waterfalls. The depth of rivers is insignificant, on average 0.5-1.5 m. The flow of Carpathian rivers is constant, its average speed is 3-5 m / sec.

The plain rivers of Prykarpattia and Zakarpattia have a slow flow and wide valleys.